1.Some people think that the best way to increase road safety is to increase the minimum legal age for driving cars or riding motorbikes. To what extent do you agree or disagree? Band 7.5
Some individuals believe raising the minimum legal age for driving cars or riding motorbikes is the most effective method of increasing road safety. While I accept that this policy is good to some extent, I believe it is not the best because there are much better measures to reduce traffic accidents.
It might be a good idea to increase the minimum age required for driving because of some reasons.
Firstly, since younger people are usually less mature and less responsible with their manners, they might not be aware of the importance of following the rules. Therefore, it is reasonable to ban them from travelling on the street to prevent them from breaking the law and causing accidents. Secondly, as older people are more experienced, they can know how to react quickly to handle dangerous situations on the road, while younger ones might not be able to. To illustrate, if the brakes of a car suddenly stop working, a young driver might panic, and accidents are more likely to occur.
However, I would argue that there are much better methods of ensuring road safety. The first one is to have stricter punishments for driving offenders. For example, people who break traffic rules should be required to pay huge fines or be banned permanently from commuting on the street. This makes commuters more likely to respect the law, and traffic accidents can be limited. Another solution is to encourage people to use public transport rather than private vehicles. This can be done by reducing the price and increasing the frequency of buses and tubes to make it more convenient for users.
In conclusion, I believe apart from increasing the legal age for driving, there are more effective ways to make sure that travelling on the street is safe for everyone.
2.Some people believe government should spend money on building train and subway lines to reduce traffic congestion. Others think that building more and wider roads is the better way to reduce traffic congestion. Discuss both views and give your opinion. Band 7
The methods of mitigating traffic congestion have been a heated topic of controversy. Some people argue that the construction of larger roads is the answer for the problem. However, I contend that such a solution is ineffective in the long term, while the option to construct railways and subways is a far better measure.
There is a common fallacy that governmental spending on building larger roads could sustainably address the problem of traffic congestion. An increase in road size could reduce the traffic intensity in the short term, but larger roads also mean that the citizens are encouraged to purchase more individual vehicles. This leads to the fact that the roads, albeit larger, would soon be filled with intense traffic again. For instance, traffic jams returned to Shanghai’s main streets not long after they were expanded in the early 1990s. In brief, if this solution is implemented, traffic jams would still persist in the long run.
Rail and subway systems, however, could ensure that traffic congestion is properly addressed. Unlike cars and buses, trains are capable of transporting hundreds of people simultaneously and thus would meet the transport demand of a vast number of passengers. Moreover, trains do not have to go through intersections and traffic lights, and dedicated lines ensure their travel is hardly interrupted. In other words, trains are always on time regardless of the level of traffic. This level of punctuality would encourage many people to choose railways and subways as their primary means of transport, and the number of individuals vehicles would decrease accordingly. As a result, traffic congestion could be tackled successfully.
The existing data provides a concrete foundation to conclude that building more and larger roads in an unsustainable measure, while train and subway lines would be a much more effective solution for the problem of traffic congestion.
3.Cycling is more environmentally friendly than other forms of transport. Why is it not popular in many places? And how to increase its popularity? Band 7
Although riding a bicycle is clearly a better way to protect the environment than using other types of vehicles, not many people around the world prefer this means of transport. There are several causes of this unpopularity, and some solutions could be proposed to promote the usage of bicycles.
To begin with, there are several reasons why few people use bicycles to travel on a regular basis. Firstly, since modern life is getting much busier than in the past, individuals nowadays want to spend as little time on transport as possible. Therefore, they prefer to use other types of vehicles such as motorbikes or cars which would take less time. Secondly, cycling is more physically demanding than riding a motorbike or driving a car. This tends to discourage people from choosing this method, especially on a hot and sunny day or when they have to travel a long distance.
Several actions can be taken to increase the popularity of bicycles. The first solution would be to make it more costly to own a motorbike or a car. This can be done by increasing the price of petrol or raising tax on these vehicles. As a result, more people would choose bicycles as their primary means of transport. Additionally, more lanes should be built to serve only cyclists, which would make it much faster to travel with bicycles. The final solution is to launch campaigns to raise citizens' awareness of the harmful effects of motorbikes and cars on the environment, and this could encourage people to cycle more often.
In conclusion, there are some reasons why bicycles are becoming less common in today's world, and solutions should be produced early to promote this environmentally friendly means of transport.
4.The car is possibly the most convenient and popular way of getting from A to B. However, due to its impact on the environment and the risk it poses to pedestrians and motorists, governments should take urgent steps to reduce our dependency on this node of transport. To what extent do you agree or disagree? Band 7
It goes without saying that the car has become an essential mode of transport both for commuting and leisure purposes. We have become dependent on it precisely because of its convenience. With no need to wait at cold bus stops or train stations, motorists can start their journey a few steps from their front door.
However, this convenience has had serious consequences. As people have become more affluent, the number of cars on the road building programmes, which in turn has had an impact on the natural environment. Moreover, despite the introduction of cleaner, lead-free fuel and the promise of electric cars, air quality in major cities continues to suffer from air pollution caused by toxic fumes from cars. Add to this the injuries and deaths caused by road traffic accidents, and it quickly becomes apparent that policy-makers need to address these negative consequences.
There are steps governments could and should take to alleviate these problems. Firstly, public transport should be improved to such an extent that catching a bus or train becomes almost as convenient as travelling by car. Secondly, commuters should be encouraged to car-share with people who make the same journey. Fuel costs are a major drain on household incomes and motorists would hopefully appreciate the benefit of sharing these costs.
Clearly, measures like these will not lead to a major decline in the use of the car but they may help us reduce the number of car journeys made.
5.Motorways help people travel quickly and cover long distances but they also cause problems. What are the problems of motorways and what are the solutions there? Band 7
Many countries in the world rely on motorways for speedy and efficient transportation, as they are a very convenient way of travelling long distances. However, motorways also have negative aspects such as dangerous traffic, damage to the environment and pollution. In this essay, I will look at some of the problems of motorways and how they can be overcome.
One major problem of motorways is that they can be dangerous. In many countries, the speed limit on motorways is very high. This means that any accidents are more likely to be serious and involve many vehicles. Sometimes in bad weather, several vehicles crash into each other and many people are killed or injured. This problem could be solved in a number of ways. People could have special lessons on how to drive safely on motorways. In addition, special signs could be displayed when driving conditions are bad to make people drive more slowly and safely. Alternatively, the general speed limit could be reduced slightly.
Secondly motorways can spoil the environment. Motorways often go through beautiful areas and may damage plants and wildlife. This problem could be avoided by building motorways through less beautiful area or putting some sections in tunnels. In addition, the large amount of traffic on motorways produces both air pollution and noise pollution. However, governments could help to reduce air pollution by making environmentally-friendly cars cheaper. Noise pollution could be reduced by changing motorway surfaces or by putting up sound-proof fences.
Despite, the problems of motorways, there are necessary and useful. With careful preparation and planning, the problems they cause could be reduced. People today are also more aware of environmental issues and as a result cars and road transport in general are becoming more environmentally friendly.
6.There is a good deal of evidence that increasing car use is contributing to global warming and having other undesirable effects on people’s health and well-being. What can be done to discourage people from using their cars? Band 7
Mass car ownership clearly has a number of undesirable consequences for people’s health and fitness as well as for the environment and community life generally. Nevertheless, owning a car is still seen as a desirable option. In fact, the number of cars in the world today is fast approaching one billion. Although this trend may seem inexorable, there is much that can be done to discourage unnecessary car use.
One possible approach is to make cars expensive to own and use, for example, by taxing them at the point of purchase or annually through a road tax. Certain types of car use, for instance short journeys within already congested cities, can also be discouraged through road pricing schemes such as that operating in London. However, these punitive measures alone are unlikely to have a major impact unless alternative means of transport are available.
Evidence suggests that where public transport options are plentiful, convenient and reliable, people will use them. Inhabitants of cities such as Paris, which have invested heavily in commuter rail networks, are more likely to use public transport than people living in cities where such networks have been allowed to deteriorate.
A less expensive and more environmentally sound option is to create a network of cycle lanes and other facilities for cyclists, such as safe weather-proof shelters for parking bicycles. This has the additional advantage of encouraging people to keep fit whilst allowing them the flexibility of autonomous travel. Cities in the Netherlands, which have relatively high rates of cycling, have shown how this can work.
In brief, the trend towards rising car ownership and use need not be inexorable. People can be encouraged to use other means of transport. However, rhetoric alone is unlikely to bring about change. Investment in practical alternatives is what is needed above all.