雅思阅读高频词汇·休闲活动类

日期:2018/11/07  |  
雅思阅读高频词汇·休闲活动类

雅思阅读高频词汇休闲娱乐类,读通这三篇文章,学会以下表达就可以在做听力section 1以及回答雅思口语相关问题时感觉轻松。

Passage1 Peripheral Vision in Sports

Focus in on something as small as a pin. Notice that everything else that fills your whole area of possible sight is indistinct, lacking in detail. We tolerate this large outlying field of blur, this peripheral view, without talking note. We unconsciously accept it. Sometimes we take charge of how we process all that blur surrounding the tiny center that our vision is focused on. Athletes best demonstrate just how much we can use the entire range of our vision, fanning out to the periphery.

An athlete’s performance, necessitating high levels of coordination and reaction time, depends on training visual abilities, not just tuning muscles. Detecting and keeping track of as much motion as possible while performing physical maneuvers is quite a feat. Peripheral visual information is processed quickly. The office worker might notice the tiny distracting insect moving beside the computer, but the fast-moving athlete must detect all kinds of motion from every angle and never lose concentration. Each peripherally viewed movement must be immediately processed as more and varied movements from different sources and directions keep coming rapidly. Good footwork and body positioning will help the athlete gain viewing time in this intense environment, improving the opportunity to anticipate what will happen next.

The athlete’s view, full of movement, requires rapid scanning with visual focus changing rapidly among various distances. Tracking fast objects is often complicated by the need for the athlete’s body to move in response to other aspects of the activity, and head motion must coordinate with eye movement to assist in balance. A volleyball player, for example, must pay attention to body positioning in relation to the speed and angle of the moving ball as well as to the court boundaries, all the while scanning the movement of the other players. Athletes need as much peripheral range as possible.

The environment contributes to athletes’ visual sharpness. Contrasting court backgrounds, adequate lighting, nonconfusing uniform color combinations, and less off-court motion all help the athlete’s peripheral concentration. It seems odd that visiting baseball teams are allowed to dress in gray uniforms when bright colors would help the home team keep a better eye on them.

Everything that catches the athlete’s attention causes the eyes to pause almost indiscernibly as they gather a quick view of focused detail. As the eyes move in and out of focus, there is a momentary blur between each pause. This is when visual tracking errors can occur. Even the act of blinking, usually at a rate of twenty-five blinks per minute, or one-tenth of a second per blink, interferes with the athlete’s vision. Normal, natural blinking means the eyes are closed for two and half seconds out of every minute, and more than that if the athlete is anxious. This is added to the rapid blurs that occur as the athlete’s eyes move in and out of focus on specific objects. These nonvisual moments can be somewhat compensated for if the athlete thoroughly tunes in to the game. Anticipation, a learned and practiced art, can serve the athlete well in many ways.

Word Families

noun

complication

Playing a ball game is not as simple as it may look; there are many complications.

verb

complicate

The need to pay attention to many things at once complicates the game for an athlete.

adjective

complicated

A game can become very complicated when there are many players on the field.

 

noun

coordination

It is important for an athlete to have good physical coordination.

verb

coordinate

An athlete must coordinate physical skill with sharp vision to play a game well.

adjective

coordinated

The coordinated movements of all the team members will help them win the game.

 

noun

demonstration

The athlete gave a demonstration of the correct way to throw the ball.

verb

demonstrate

Professional athletes demonstrate a high level of skills.

adjective

demonstrative

The way that goal was scored was demonstrative of good teamwork in action.

 

noun

performance

The team gave an excellent performance at last night’s game.

noun

performer

All the performers did a good job.

verb

perform

The entire team performed well during the game.

 

 

noun

tolerance

An athlete should have tolerance for hard physical activity.

verb

tolerate

Athletes need to be able to tolerate a high level of action around them.

adjective

tolerant

Good athletes always try to do their best but must still be tolerant of occasional failure.

 

noun

vision

Good vision is important for playing sports well.

adjective

visual

In sports, visual abilities can be as important as physical abilities.

adverb

visually

The coach used drawings to explain the game visually.

 

 

Passage2 History of the Circus

The circus is one of the oldest forms of entertainment in history. Although the modern circus has been around for a few centuries, related forms of public entertainment have been in existence for millennia. The animal trainers, clowns, and other circus performers who are familiar to us today can trace their roots to the coliseums, stadiums, and racetracks of the ancient world.

The ancient Romans were the first to enjoy the circus. Around the sixth century B.C., the Circus Maximus was founded in Rome as a venue for public entertainment, mostly chariot races, which were a popular spectator sport. Other events held at the Circus Maximus included gladiator fights and exhibits of exotic animals such as elephants and tigers. These entertainments were less common than chariot races but still very popular. The original Circus Maximus venue was built entirely of wood. By the height of the Roman Empire, it had gone through several renovations and had become a massive marble stadium that could seat more than 200,000 spectators.

Chariot races continued to be held at the Circus Marximus for almost a century after the last remnants of the Roman Empire had vanished. Eventually, the site was permanently retired, and public entertainment was reduced to small bands of traveling performers and animal trainers. It was during the Dark Ages that the circus began to develop into what we know today. The monarchs of Europe had court jesters, whose duty it was to provide amusement for the court. They combined the talents of jugglers, mimes, and clowns. The more common people enjoyed the performances of traveling entertainers, who went from village to village, putting on shows during festivals. These performers made up the medieval circus, which had little in common with the Circus Maximus other than adopting the word circus as its name. Leisure time was extremely rare during the Dark Ages, and people had few opportunities to enjoy circus performances. However, the circus survived to make a return to its former grandeur in the eighteenth century.

England was one of the first nations to embrace the modern circus. During the late 1700s, an Englishman named Philip Astley founded the first modern circus. He was a skilled rider who invented stunt riding on horseback. He performed his stunts in a circus ring, another of his ideas, within an indoor stadium. After his act became popular in London, he was asked by Louis XV to perform in France. He later expanded his act to include clowns, acrobats, and parades of trained animals. The last addition to his act was slapstick humor. He had horseback riders pretend to fall off their horses and then go stumbling after them. Shortly after Astley’s death, the circus spread to America.

During the early 1800s, the United States took to the circus quickly after learning of its popularity in Europe. Joshua Brown, an American businessman, introduced the circus tent in 1825. The use of portable tents allowed him to take his act all over the country. His traveling circus was a massive success as a business enterprise and loved by audiences everywhere. Most circuses today are variations of Brown’s circus.

 

Word Families

noun

development

Joshua Brown’s introduction of the circus tent was an important contribution to the development of the circus.

noun

developer

Philip Astley is known as the developer of stunt riding.

verb

develop

The circus has developed in different ways over the years.

 

noun

entertainment

The circus is still a favorite form of entertainment today.

noun

entertainer

The job of a circus entertainer looks like fun, but it is really very difficult.

verb

entertain

People often hire clowns to entertain children at parties.

adjective

entertaining

We spent a very entertaining afternoon at the circus.

 

noun

permanence

The permanence of the circus as a form of entertainment shows how much people enjoy it.

adjective

permanent

Unlike the traveling bands of performers court jesters had permanent jobs.

adverb

permanently

Circuses don’t stay in one place permanently but travel around from city to city.

 

noun

popularity

The circus still enjoys great popularity.

verb

popularize

Joshua Brown helped to popularize the circus in America.

adjective

popular

The circus is popular all over the world.

adverb

popularly

The modern circus is popularly known as the Big Top.

 

noun

survival

The survival of the circus is due to its ability to change with the times.

noun

survivor

The circus as a form of entertainment is a survivor of the hard times of the Dark Ages.

verb

survive

The circus has survived in many forms throughout the centuries.

 

noun

trainer

A circus animal trainer has to be able to work with exotic animals.

verb

train

Some animals are easier to train than others.

adjective

trained

Many circuses use trained elephants in their show.

 

Passage 3 Uses of Leisure Time

A

Although it may seem that people are working more, studies show that we have more leisure time than ever before. Yet researchers are reporting higher levels of both stress and obesity. These reports appear to be a sign that we are not using our leisure time to our best advantage.

 

B

Health experts agree that the best way to restore body and mind is to spend time in nature pursuing a comfortable level of physical exercise. Spending time in natural surroundings is especially crucial now because, for the first time, a majority of the world’s population live in cities. Recent studies show that intellectual function weakens as a result of the energy expended simply sorting out the overwhelming stimuli of city life. Tests demonstrate that people suffer decreases in attention span, memory, and problem-solving ability after taking a short walk on a busy city street or merely seeing pictures of city life. Tests also show that time spent in the city results in a decreased ability to concentrate and to control emotions and impulses. On the other hand, spending time in the country produces the opposite effects.

 

C

Unfortunately, as society becomes more centered on city life, we have to rejuvenate ourselves in nature deliberately rather than as a matter of course. Yet research shows that we are not spending our leisure time rejuvenating ourselves. Around the world, the most popular way to spend free time is watching television. This, the most passive of pastimes, is how Americans spend more than half their leisure time. Globally, the next most popular is using the Internet, also passive, and it ranks as the most favored among the billions in China. The third is shopping, which may be slightly more active but is still as far from nature as possible. Modern shopping malls remove shoppers from everything natural, leaving them to experience the outdoors only between the paved parking lot and the mall doors.

 

D

Children are most negatively affected by city life. Parents are reluctant to let children play freely in the city, fearing for their health and safety, and nature is something many children in the city may never have a chance to experience. Childhood obesity and depression are reaching epidemic levels. Authorities have begun to acknowledge the problem, and innovative programs that give children an opportunity to spend time in nature are being introduced in countries around the world.

 

E

Vacations are the most obvious chunk of leisure time. The countries with the most vacation time are Italy, with an average of forty-two days a year, and France, with thirty-seven. The industrious Americans have the least: thirteen days. Yet the country most satisfied with their vacations are not the Italians but the British. The British usually divide up their vacation time, taking it in pieces throughout the year rather than all at once. Of all nationalities, the British spend the most time vacationing outdoors in their national-trust parks, where they engage in a comfortable level of physical activity. The British report the greatest satisfaction with their leisure time. Perhaps the rest of the world would do well to follow their lead.

 

Word Families

noun

authority

The authorities decided to keep the park open in the evenings so families could spend more time in nature.

verb

authorize

The school director authorized the teachers to spend a larger chunk of the school day outdoors with their students.

adjective

authoritative

According to an authoritative source, spending time in nature improves our health.

adverb

authoritatively

The expert wrote authoritatively about the topic of exercise and its effects on mental health.

 

noun

deliberation

After deliberation, he decided to spend some time every day engaged in outdoor activities.

verb

deliberate

The group deliberated for an hour before reaching a decision.

adjective

deliberate

It is obvious that people need to make a deliberate decision to spend more time in nature.

adverb

deliberately

We need to spend time in nature deliberately.

 

noun

emotion

The stress of city life can make emotions difficult to control.

adjective

emotional

Children who don’t spend a lot of time playing outdoors can end up with emotional problems.

adverb

emotionally

People respond emotionally to the overwhelming stimuli of the city.

 

noun

industry

His favorite pastime is building model ships, and he always goes about this activity with great industry.

adjective

industrious

He is always industrious even when engaged in leisure-time activities.

adverb

industriously

He worked on his project industriously.

 

noun

intellect

The stress of city life has effects on the intellect.

noun

intellectual

I enjoy reading the works of the great intellectuals of the nineteenth century.

adjective

intellectual

Some people enjoy spending their leisure time engaged in intellectual activities.

adverb

intellectually

Some people look for experiences that engage them intellectually.

 

noun

reluctance

Reluctance to spend time in nature is a problem for modern children.

adjective

reluctant

People can be reluctant to leave their familiar city surroundings to explore unknown places.

adverb

reluctantly

They reluctantly agreed to spend their vacation at a national park.

 

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