雅思阅读三大句型和语法,解决它们拿7分

日期:2018/07/16  |   分类: 雅思阅读
雅思阅读三大句型和语法,解决它们拿7分

一、定语从句(剑桥13阅读文章中共出现50次以上

 

语法备注:限定性定语从句和非限定性定语从句区别:

定语从句都是限定或者修饰先行词(中心词)的。限定性定语从句是用来限定、修饰中心词的,没有它会影响主句意思的清晰性、确定性。不可用逗号隔开其和主句。

 

非限定性定语从句是先行词的附加说明,去掉了也不会影响主语意思,可用逗号隔开其和主句。

 

 

(一)、限定性定语从句是对先行词从本质或特征上进行限制的一种定语从句,它所修饰的词代表一个(些)或一类特定的人或事、物。例如: 

 

A man who doesn't learn from others can't achieve much.一个不向别人学习的人是不能有多少成就的。 

 

A man被限定后,指一类特定的人.这类定语从句是不能去掉的,否则剩下的部分就失去意义不能成立,或者含义不清,甚至让人感到莫名其妙。非限定性定语从句则不然,它只对所修饰的词作进一步的说明,去掉之后并不影响句子的整个含义。在形式上,非限定性定语从句与主句之间通常用逗号隔开。例如: 

Finally we visited to the Giant Yangtze Gorges Dam, which is the greatest key water control project in the world at present.最后我们参观了长江三峡大坝,它是目前世界上最大的水利枢纽工程。 

 

若去掉从句,主句部分的含义仍然完整。

(二)、引导非限定性定语从句时,只能用which(不用that)。例如: 

 

Heat is another form of energy, which is as important as other kinds of energy.热是另一种形式的能量,与其他形式的能量一样重要。 

 

从句表补充说明,而且关系代词which不能换成that。 

 

(三)、引导非限定性定语从句的which可以指代前面的先行词,也可以指前面整个句子的含义。例如: 

 

That Peter will marry Alice, which has not been announced yet, has spread around.彼特要娶爱丽斯这件事还没宣布,却已传得沸沸扬扬。 

 

句子中的which指"彼特要娶爱丽斯"这整个句子的意思。 

 

(四)、除which外,还可用when, where, who等关系代、副词引导非限定性定语从句。例如: 

 

After graduation, I decided to stay in Chongqing, where I spent my childhood and four years of college life.毕业后,我决定留在重庆,在那里我曾度过了我的童年和四年大学生活。 

 

Albert Einstein left Germany for the United States during World War II, when Jews were badly treated in Germany.第二次世界大战期间,爱因斯坦离开德国去了美国,那时犹太人在德国受到不好的对待。 

 

(五)、在限定性定语从句中作宾语时,引导词可以省略,但引导非限定性定语从句的关联词不能省。试比较: 

 

He was eager to go to the hospital to see his stepmother, whom he loved and respected as his own mother.他急于想去医院看望他的继母,他把他的继母当作亲生母亲一样热爱和尊敬。 

 

The American journalist (whom / who) the announcer mentioned in the news broadcast is said to have been killed by the gangsters.播音员在新闻广播中提到的那位美国记者据说已经被匪徒杀害了。 

 

两例中的关系代词都在从句中作宾语.由于第二例是限定性定语从句,可以省略关系代词;第一例中的引导词不能省略,因为它引导的是非限定性定语从句。 

 

(六)、表示"正如"的含义时,通常用as引导非限定性定语从句,也可用which引导;但置于句首时,只能用as引导。 

 

例如: 

 

China has basically succeeded in defeating SARS, which / as we have expected.正如我们所预料的那样,中国已基本上战胜了"非典"。 

 

As is well known to everybody, Taiwan is an inseparable part of China.众所周知,台湾是中国不可分割的一部分。 

 

但是当非限定性定语从句是否定含义时,就只能用which(而不用as)引导。例如: 

 

He didn't win the championship, which I hadn't expected.他没获得冠军,这一点是我没预料到的。

 

现在我们针对以下的句子快速找到中心词(或者被指代的整个句子)以及引导词。

 

A key feature of the campaign was the website www.newzealand.com, which provided potential visitors to New Zealand with a single gateway to everything the destination had to offer.

 

The heart of the website was a database of tourism services operators, both those based in New Zealand and those based abroad which offered tourism services to the country.

 

 

Another feature that attracted a lot of attention was an interactive journey through a number of the locations chosen for blockbuster films which had made use of New Zealand’s stunning scenery as a backdrop.

 

Later, A travel Planner feature was added, which allowed visitors to click and ‘bookmark’ places or attractions they were interested in, and then view the results on a map.

 

Cinnamon is a sweet, fragrant spice produced from the inner bark of trees of the genus Cinnamomum, which is native to the Indian sub-continent.

 

The leaves have hard veins in their centers which, in many parts of the world, are used as brushes after the green part of the leaf has been stripped away.

 

 

They discovered that it helps reinforce the bonds between prairie voles, which mate for life, and triggers the motherly behavior that sheep show towards their newborn lambs.

 

In a groundbreaking experiment, Markus Heinrichs and his colleagues at the University of Freiburg, Germany, asked volunteers to do an activity in which they could invest money with an anonymous person who was not guaranteed to be honest.

 

二、后置定语

一句话:后置定语是定语从句的简化形式,起到修饰(形容词)的作用。

 

注意括号中的表达,即是在写作时可以省去的部分。

 

In addition, because participating businesses were able to update the details they gave on a regular basis, the information (which was ) provided remained accurate.

 

And to maintain and improve standards, Tourism New Zealand organized a scheme whereby organizations (which were ) appearing on the website underwent an independent evaluation against a set of agreed national standards of quality.

 

Cinnamon is a sweet, fragrant spice (which is )produced from the inner bark of trees of the genus Cinnamomum, which is native to the Indian sub-continent.

 

An important product (which is ) obtained from the shell is charcoal, which is widely used in various industries as well as in the home.

 

In ancient Rome, mourners (who were ) attending funerals burnt cinnamon to create a pleasant scent.

 

One such journey took just under 12 weeks, beating every other ship (which were) sailing that year by around a month.

 

看到这有同学会问,为什么有些后置定语是-ed,有些后置定语是-ing形式?判断标准很简单:其主语在句子里扮演主动时态,就是-ing, 如果是被动时态则是-ed.

 

 

、非谓语动词结构作状语

非谓语动词包括分词(过去分词和现在分词)、动词不定式和动名词,它们的结构可以替换各种状语从句,为状语表达提供变化。

 

英语表达动作时有两种情况:

 

顺时性动词:即句子里的两个或者多个动作的发生是依序进行的,互相之间不是从属或者包容的关系,后一个动作的发生以前一个动作的发生为时间前提。

 

共时性动词:当一个主语带两个以上的谓语时,如果其中一个是主动词,其他动词是在主动词发生的同时发生的,就可以把两个或多个动作之间看成互相具有包容或者从属关系;被从属的那个动作,如果是主语做出的,则用现在分词,如果主语是该动作的动作对象,则用过去分词。此分词结构可以表示时间、方式、条件、结果、目的、让步等,成为常见的连词引导状语的一种替代。

 

Humans tend not to return unused parts of harvested crops directly to the soil to enrich it, meaning that the soil gradually becomes less fertile.

 

Chemical fertilizers can release polluting nitrous oxide into the atmosphere and excess is often washed away with the rain, releasing nitrogen into rivers.

 

 

Not only did EMI create compositions in Cope’s style, but also that of the most revered classical composers, including Bach, Chopin and Mozart.

 

What’s more, administering oxytocin also has sharply contrasting outcomes depending on a person’s disposition.

 

The few plants that grew in the control plots, fed with traditional fertilizers, were small and weak.

 

 

我们再看看剑桥雅思4、5中的类似变化练习:

 

1.While two fifths of the students provided the information that the rainforests provide oxygen, in some cases this response also embraced the misconception that rainforest destruction would reduce atmospheric oxygen, which made the atmosphere incompatible with human life on earth.

尽管2/5的学生认为雨林提供了洋气,但是,某系额情况下,这一回答也包含了这一错误认识,即雨林破坏会减少大气氧气,进而使得大气层难以适合地球上的人类生命。

 

改为现在分词结构做结果状语,making的逻辑主语是前面整个句子:While two fifths of the students provided the information that the rainforests provide oxygen,in some cases this response also e,braced the misconception that rainforest destruction would reduce atmospheric oxygen,making the atmosphere incompatible with human life on earth.

 

2.When they were asked about these curves, they all described them as metaphorical ways of suggestion motion.

当被问到这些曲线的时候,他们都形容它们是表示运动的比喻方法。

 

修改为过去分词结构代替时间状语从句:When asked about these curves,they all described them as metaphorical ways of suggestion motion.

 

      1. When he and his team compared measurements for fifteen of mammal, he and his team found larger(for a given body size)are linked to greater playfulness.

他和自己的团队比较了十五个种类的哺乳动物后,发现(就身体大小而言)大脑越大,越与顽皮性有关。

 

修改为现在分词结构代替时间状语从句:Comparing measurements for fifteen of mammal,he and his team found larger(for a given body size)are linked to greater playfulness.

 

1.Every eruption is different, but if/when it is put at its simplest. where there are weakness, rocks deep in the mantle, heated to 1,350℃,will start ti expand and rise.

每次爆发都不一样,但是用最简单的话说就是,底层薄弱的地方,深处的岩石如果被加温到1350℃就会开始膨胀和上升。

 

改成过去分词结构代替条件状语从句或者时间状语从句:Every eruption is different,but put at its simplest.where there are weakness,rocks deep in the mantle,heated to 1,350,will start ti expand and rise.

 

2.The eruption was so fierce that dust thrown into the stratosphere darkened the skies, which canceled the following summer in Europe and North America.

喷发如此剧烈,以至于被投掷到同温层的火山灰使填空黯淡下来,结果导致欧洲和北美次年的夏季消失了。

 

改成现在分词结构作结果状语从句:The eruption was so fierce that dust thrown into the stratosphere darkened the skies, canceling the following summer in Europe and North America.

 

3.Often, when studying their mother tongue, linguists act as their own informants, judging the ambiguity, acceptability, or other properties of utterances against their own intuitions.

通常,当语言学家研究母语的时候,他们自己充当信息提供者,鉴别含糊性、可接受性、或凭借直觉鉴别语言的其他特性。

 

将第一个划线处的现在分词结构改成时间状语从句,同时还原第二处划线部分:Often,when linguists study their mother tongue,linguists act as their own informants and judge the ambiguity,acceptability,or other properties of utterances against their own intuitions.

 

4.If/when it is put another way, basic health-care is now recognized as a “public good”, rather than a “private good “that one is expected to buy for oneself.

换句话说,基本保健现在被认为是一种“公物”,而不是一个人会为自己购买的“私物”。

 

改成过去分词结构代替条件或者时间状语从句:Put another way,basic health-care is now recognised as a “public good”,rather than a “private good “that one is expected to buy for oneself.

 

5.James Bosewell, his biographer, described the garret where Johnson worked as “fitted up like a counting house ”with a long desk running down the middle at which the copying clerks would work standing up.

James Bosewell——他的传记作者——把约翰逊工作的顶楼描写为:“(房间)安排得像一间账房”,有一张桌子在屋子中间一字摆开,抄录员们一般站着工作。

 

将现在分词结构作的伴随状语改为从句:James Bosewell,his biographer,described the garret where Johnson worked as “fitted up like a counting house”with a long desk running down the middle at which the copying clerks would work while they were standing up.

 

6.Because he worked to a deadline, he had to draw on the best of all previous dictionaries ,and to make his work one of heroic synthesis.

由于编撰有最后期限,他不得不汲取所有的旧词典的精华,以使他的著作成为一个集大成者。

 

改成现在分词结构代替原因状语从句Working to a deadline,he had to draw on the best of all previous dictionaries ,and to make his work one of heroic synthesis.

 

7.As experiment unfolded, the pupil would deliberately give the wrong answers to questions posed by the teacher, thereby bringing on various electrical punishments even up to the danger level of 300 volts and beyond.

随着实验的开始,学生会故意对教师提出的问题给出错误的答案,结果招致不同的电击惩罚,有的甚至高达300伏以上。

 

将现在分词结构做的结构状语改成定语从句:As experiment unfolded,the pupil would deliberately give the wrong answers to questions posed by the teacher,which thereby brought  on various electrical punishments even up to the danger level of 300 volts and beyond.